The characteristics of mechanical and electrical construction drawings and the method of drawing
      Abstract: this article in view of the standpoints, owner and contractor, on the current situation of the building mechanical and electrical construction drawings audit brake, points out that the current mechanical and electrical construction drawing review some of the ills and the consequences, at the same time from to ensure smooth and engineering construction project result, qualified, reasonable figure on some practical method is proposed, for reference in practical work.
      Key words: construction mechanical and electrical engineering construction drawing characteristics drawing method design specification construction specification
      1 the foregoing
      General mechanical and electrical engineering in the building engineering quantity is small, and the mechanical and electrical engineering construction in the whole construction space and the distribution of the surface and more fragmented and hidden, especially pay attention to the overall coordination and modern architecture, both inside and outside is beautiful, mechanical and electrical engineering of pipeline and equipment are all use of construction and decoration construction technique tries to conceal, so there is a big part of the equipment of the line cannot be reflected in the construction plan, equipment of some specific installation position and process methods in drawings and detailed, and installation of atlas have some discrepancy.At the same time, the influx of foreign capital enterprise reform and opening up, various architectural design concept and culture as well as the interest cost considerations, the graphic design style and the depth difference is very big, at the same time a large number of the use of new materials and new construction technology of application at home and abroad, the owner side of some special requirements also makes the mechanical and electrical engineering construction drawing content diversity, complexity, concealment become more prominent, according to the characteristics of the current situation and how to guarantee the smooth engineering construction and engineering quality of qualified, at the same time to make construction enterprise within the scope of the reasonable cost to complete the project construction tasks, mechanical and electrical engineering construction before the figure on this is very important, it expounds the following my actual work experience.
      2. Problems arising from the project design stage and the drawing trial
      General property is both to the requirement of engineering project are of good quality and asked for a low cost, and marketing management, architecture design institute is now the city competition is intense, a lot of engineering in the design phase focuses on architectural structure strength and the spatial distribution, as well as the construction, and mechanical and electrical engineering design value is small, and affected by the owners of the factors is very large, ignoring the building codes and use function, optional the gender is big, to change the mechanical and electrical engineering, especially some foreign owner due to differences in concepts and architectural culture, there are a lot of engineering drawings is in abroad, after the completion of design to the domestic just do some drawings to text translation work, ignore the region and architectural culture, and the difference of building codes, and a lot of property without apparatus of construction engineering and technical personnel, with subjective will require design institute according to his own idea design, engineering drawing from the design after most of the foreign capital enterprise of engineering drawing to various engineering consultants, and technical service on many engineering consultants in the name of the company at the present stage is actually project total package, but the technology is good Withers not neat, many depend on its relationship with the owner party operates privately, for engineering design and drawings audit lax, although have drawings submitted to the government departments of construction engineering drawing review center professional figure, but figure whose center is heavy soil construction for construction projects audit, the tendency of light mechanical and electrical and other engineering content, this leads to mechanical and electrical engineering shittu was still exist many problems to the construction unit.
      The attitude of construction units to mechanical and electrical construction drawings
      According to construction practice, the construction unit is according to the figure construction, not to change the drawings, if you want to change drawings must obtain the consent of the owner and design institute, big changes still need drawings for review again, and engineering change approval of written documents and drawings to change construction, because of this characteristic, most of the construction units are according to the figure construction, combined with construction unit also think mechanical and electrical engineering is different from the building structure, easy to rework changes according to the figure construction first, wrong again, and the construction of the surface error is not responsible, on which the construction price is available to change the construction and the owner of the additional compensation, so the construction drawing review below is just on the calculation of quantities and the cost of materials, and for the integrity of the electrical and mechanical engineering drawing system, rationality, relevance, feasibility of construction technology has not been careful analysis and review, has caused many problems to wait to construction process to find, when to take measures only rework or shutdown options, will lead to waste of materials and artificial, and the delay of time limit for a project, the construction unit under the contract and the owner side constraints, tend to be too hasty to period and will be treated as many embedded reserved in mechanical and electrical engineering work in a hurry, to the whole body after the completion of the project, find out construction error and unreasonable tapping again, to redo, make some to through the structure and installation of the pipe cannot be concealed construction according to the requirement, at the same time to rework and damage the integrity and quality of civil engineering has been completed, the project quality is not guaranteed.At present a lot of construction organization design and construction schemes at the same time have become "eight-part essays", the content of the content of the empty form, no carefully prepared according to the technical features of each project, the construction technology and engineering is difficult to foresee the outcome, for surface defects will appear in the process of the construction problem cannot be found in advance.In addition, the installation of mechanical and electrical engineering installation often require a lot of detailed detail, some foreign capital enterprise of construction drawing only, project drawings, construction detail requires drawing, construction units and construction units, from experience, not draw detail construction process, from standard and atlas, with the formal construction process with owners and supervision, so it is difficult to guarantee the rationality of the project, the continuity of construction, the construction process is easy to the possibility of rework, cause delay the construction period, waste materials and artificial is inevitable.
      4. Drawings before construction of mechanical and electrical engineering drawings and the method of drawing
      1) figure on the basis, in accordance with the relevant drawings in the project must comply with national and local electrical and mechanical engineering design and construction specifications, for the first compulsory normative terms related to engineering to check and see any violation and conflict situations, and for other standard terms, check, drawing the design basis and specification is the latest national and local regulations, the presence of conflict;At the same time, the owner's requirement is also one of the basis of the picture review, but it is reasonable to determine whether the owner's requirement is consistent with the design specification.
      2) figure whose methods and content, A, headed by mechanical and electrical engineering project technical director, establish A chart review team, collaboration, and to determine the mechanical and electrical engineering in each major system audit, formulate standardized chart review record form;B, will distinguish between different content in mechanical and electrical engineering project according to the system, such as heavy current, weak current, water supply and drainage, fire protection, air conditioning, then gives the system breakdown, such as high voltage, including high pressure, low pressure, normal power, standby power supply, emergency power supply, etc., the purpose of this plan approval separately is easy to see that the system is perfect, have omission in the equipment and the function link, how the independence of the system function;C, at the same time of audit independence and integrity of each system and the correlation of each system to consider electrical and mechanical engineering and the correlation with civil engineering, such as fire fighting system set up by the location of the fire control equipment of strong power, capacity, wire diameter, control method, the equipment running function, path, way, etc., should not only comply with the functional requirements and specifications of this system and to comply with relevant system requirements and related specifications;D, review the electrical and mechanical engineering drawings must be combined with civil engineering drawing faces, must first clear the basic content of civil engineering, such as building space height, size, both inside and outside the building function, the thickness of the wall and floor, and mechanical and electrical engineering related to various functional space layout (pipe Wells, water and electricity equipment room, all kinds of sporadic equipment distribution points), so the determination of the construction sequence of applied technology is the basis, especially all kinds of embedded project, must be based on the understanding of civil engineering in detail, to find the lack of drawings, to take remedial measures in advance, to make the right construction plan;D according to drawings required by the installation construction standard atlas, the surface function of mechanical and electrical equipment and installation environment, careful analysis to determine the best construction scheme meet the installation requirements of the standard atlas;E to pay special attention to various mechanical and electrical plan approval drawing dimension check, in order to ensure the mechanical and electrical engineering pipeline embed and reasonable space and the position of the equipment installation, in order to accurately calculate the reasonable material usage and the quantities, accurately grasp the construction cost;F engineering drawing review problems found after the completion of the figure must be careful by clicking on the classified system and the function summary, various professional figure whose concentration are discussed, to distinguish the problem and the importance of general, legacy for design reasons of problems, such as imperfect system, process, materials, equipment layout, the system function is not in conformity with the national or local standards, drawings marked should belong to major problems such as unclear, must report to the supervisor and the owner, is solved by the owner to invite design institute, design units and owners should reply with official confirmation letters and drawings to the supervision and construction units, involves significant changes to restore the content of the changes in the relevant words and drawings submitted related including administration audit confirmation issued to construction sites, and some detail problems such as: equipment installation position and piping embedded position of small deviation, drawing construction details and the development process should be amended;It is an important technical basis for the construction process and the written basis for the final cost settlement and completion information of the project.
      5 conclusion
      A complete construction project is the integration of various project content, and the use function of the building after the completion of the project, most need to rely on the mechanical and electrical engineering function, abnormal of water and electricity, fire, to make air conditioning function is not reasonable, cannot normal use of buildings, and mechanical and electrical engineering is unqualified, in the process of using various energy loss is striking, and do not conform to the requirements of the modern architecture of saving energy and reducing consumption, use to increase the using cost.Strong points of mechanical and electrical engineering area wide more and less, but the content is multifarious, the characteristics of the material price is high, the owner, design institute and professional figure whose unit need to pass of the design, plan approval, the seriousness of respect national and local standards and mandatory, is the premise of guarantee the quality of qualified mechanical and electrical drawings and mechanical and electrical engineering, the construction unit construction carefully before for drawing review, found that surface problem in advance, and design and formulate corrective remedial measures in time, the owners ensure that the correct construction technology, reasonably accurate grasp of the cost, make the mechanical and electrical engineering quality qualified, to ensure the safety of engineering construction, the fundamental guarantee of smoothly.