Basic knowledge and answer questions
Source: | Author:lichengcn | Publish time: 2017-08-09 | 7 Views | Share:
1. What is the volume rate?Answer: the volume rate is the ratio of total construction area to total land area.It's usually expressed as a decimal.
2. What is building density?Answer: the building density is the ratio between the total area of the project and the total land area.It is usually expressed as a percentage.
3. What is green land rate (green rate)?
Answer: green land rate is the ratio of total area of project green space and total land area.It is usually expressed as a percentage.
4.What is the daylight distance?
Answer: the distance between the two buildings is the distance between the two buildings.The calculation of the distance of sunshine, usually from the winter solstice to this day at the lower level of the lower window of the house, the wall of the wall, can be taken by the height of the sun.
5. What are the differences between buildings and structures?
Answer: any house or place for people to produce, live or other activities is called a building, such as an apartment, a workshop, a school, etc.The buildings that people do not produce or live in are called structures, such as chimneys, water towers, Bridges, etc.
6. What is the construction "three materials"?
Answer: building "three big material" refers to steel, cement, lumber.
7. What are the three parts of the construction cost?
Answer: building installation engineering cost is composed of labor cost, material cost, machine cost 3 parts.
8. What is unified module system?What is the basic module, expanded modulus, submodule?
Answer: (1), the so-called unity modular system, is designed to realize the standardization of design a set of basic rules, make the different buildings and the division between the size of a unified and harmonious, make have versatility and interchangeability, to speed up the design, improve construction efficiency, reduce cost.(2) the basic modulus is the basic dimension used in modular coordination, and 1M = 100mm in M.(3) the expansion modulus is a kind of the number of modulus, which is a multiple of the basic modulus.The total number of the modules is 3M (300mm), 6M (600mm), 12M (1200mm), 15M (1500mm), 30M (3000mm) and 60M (6000mm).The larger dimensions of the building, such as opening, depth, span, and column spacing, should be a multiple of a larger modulus.(4) the submodule is another kind of the output module, whose numerical value is the multiple of the basic modulus.There are three modules: 1/10m (10mm), 1/5m (20mm), 1/2m (50mm).The smaller dimensions in the building, such as cracks, wall thickness and construction nodes, should be multiples of a certain module.
9. What is the symbol size, construction size and actual size?
Answer: (1), the size of the logo is used to indicate the building axis positioning between size (width, depth), and building products, components, place boundaries between size on equipment.The size of the logo shall conform to the code of module.(2) construction size is the design dimension of architectural products and architectural components.Construction size is less than or larger than mark size.In general, the size of the structure plus the reserved slot size or the necessary support size is equal to the dimension of the logo.(3) the actual size is the actual size of construction products and architectural components.The difference between the actual size and the construction size shall be the allowable construction tolerance value.
10.What is the location axis?
Answer: a positioning axis is a line used to determine the location of the main structure or component of a building and its marking dimensions.
11. What is horizontal and vertical?What is the transverse axis and the longitudinal axis?
Answer: (1) horizontal, the width of the building.(2) vertical, the length of the building.(3) the axis along the width of the building is called the transverse axis.Its numbering method is written from left to right in the axis circle.(4) the axis along the length of the building is called the longitudinal axis.Its numbering method is written from top to bottom in the axis circle (the letter I, O, Z are not used).
12.What is the opening and deepening of the house?
Answer: the width of a house and the distance between the two transverse axes;Depth refers to the depth of a house and the distance between the two longitudinal axes.
13. What is the height?What is the net height?
Answer: the height of the floor height of the building, or the height of the floor or ground level of this floor or ground;The net height refers to the clearance height of the room and the height of the floor below the ceiling
14.What is the total height of the building?
Answer: the total height of the building is the total height of the outdoor floor to the top of the cornice.
15. What is the elevation?What is absolute elevation, relative elevation?
Answer: (1) the elevation of a certain part of the building and the defined water reference point is called the elevation of the site.(2) the absolute elevation is also known as altitude, and the mean sea level of the yellow sea near Qingdao is designated as the zero point of absolute elevation, and the elevation of the whole country is the benchmark.(3) the relative elevation is the ground zero (+ 0.00) of the main room in the first floor of the building, indicating the height of the first floor.
16. What is the floor area, area of use and utilization rate?What is the traffic area and the structure area?
Answer: (1) the building area refers to the product of the length of the building, the product of the width of the outsourcing, and the number of layers.It consists of area, area and area of structure.(2) the area refers to the net area of the room (net area is the product of the net size of the wall thickness).(3) occupancy rate is also called occupancy rate, which refers to the percentage of usable floor area.(4) transportation area refers to the net area of communication facilities such as walkway, stairway and elevator.(5) the structure area refers to the area of the wall and column.
17.What is the red line?
Answer: the red line refers to the area of the construction unit approved by the planning department. It is usually used to circle the drawing with red pen and has legal effect.
18. How are buildings graded?
A: the grade of the building is divided according to the duration of durability and the duration of fire resistance.(1) it is divided into four categories according to the endurance grade: grade 1, with a duration of more than 100 years;Secondary, durable years of 50 ~ 100 years;Iii. Durable years of 25 to 50 years;Level 4, durable years under 15 years.(2) according to the classification of fire resistance grade, it is divided into four grades: from level one to level 4, the fire resistance of buildings gradually decreases.
19.What is a masonry structure?
Answer: the vertical load bearing member of the house USES brick wall or brick column, horizontal load bearing member USES reinforced concrete floor board, roof board, such structure form is called brick mix structure.
20.What is a framework?
Answer: frame structure refers to the skeleton of pillars, longitudinal beams, transverse beams and floor boards as the bearing structure. The wall is the enclosure structure.
21.What is a shear wall?
Answer: shear wall refers to the wall of resistance level shear force added in frame structure.The horizontal shear force that the high-rise building is to resist is mainly caused by earthquake, so the shear wall is called aseismatic wall.
22.What is a framework?Shear wall structure?
Answer: the framework?The shear wall structure refers to the vertical load borne by the frame and the shear wall.The horizontal load shall be borne by the frame 20% ~ 30%, and the shear wall shall bear 70% ~ 80% structure.The length of shear wall is designed according to the standard of 50mm per square metre.
23. What is the all-shear wall structure?
Answer: the whole shear wall structure is to use the interior wall of the building (or internal wall) as the bearing skeleton to bear the structure of vertical load and horizontal load of buildings.
24. What is the tubular structure?
Answer: the structure of the tube structure is integrated with the frame-shear wall structure and the whole shear wall structure.The cylinder structure is a sealed tube with a shear wall or a closed column frame which is concentrated into the interior and periphery of the house.It is characterized by the concentration of shear wall and large free space, which is used in office buildings.
25.What is steel structure?
Answer: steel structure is the structure of steel structure.It has the characteristics of light weight, high strength, good ductility, quick construction and good shock resistance.Steel structure is used in high - rise buildings, which cost more.
26. Compared with the masonry structure, what are the advantages and disadvantages of frame structure?
Answer: (1) light weight: the masonry structure weighs 1,500kg/m2;The frame structure shall be 400kg ~ 600kg/m2, only one third of the masonry structure, if the light slab (reinforced concrete partition wall, light steel keel partition, etc.) is used.(2) the room layout is flexible: the structure of the frame structure is the frame itself, the wall board only has the enclosure and the separation effect, so the layout is more flexible.(3) the effective area is increased: the frame structure is thinner than the brick, and the use area of the house is increased relatively.Disadvantages: (1) the steel amount is about 30% higher than the masonry structure. Compared with the masonry structure, the cost is high.(2) the size of the sections of the columns is too large, and it will protrude out of the wall and affect the aesthetics.
27.What is the difference between foundation and foundation?
Answer: (1) the foundation is the soil layer beneath the foundation. Its function is to bear all the load from the base.(2), the building foundation is buried under the ground bearing component, is an important part of the building, its role is handed down from building under full load, and along with the weight of the load to the soil below.
28. What is the foundation depth?What is the deep foundation and shallow foundation?
Answer: (1) base depth is the vertical distance from the outdoor design floor to the base surface.(2) the foundation of depth greater than or equal to 5m is called the deep foundation;Buried depth between 0.5 m and 5 m is called a shallow foundation.The foundation shall not be shallow than 0.5 m.
29.What are the three different ways of building a building?
Answer: (1), press use material cent: can be divided into brick foundation, wool stone foundation, concrete foundation, reinforced concrete foundation and so on.(2) according to the form of tectonics: it can be divided into independent foundation, strip foundation, well foundation, slab foundation, raft foundation, box foundation, pile foundation and so on.(3) it can be divided into rigid foundation and flexible basis according to the characteristics of materials used.
30. What is the moisture-proof layer?
Answer: in order to prevent the underground moisture from rising along the wall and surface water to the wall erosion, use the waterproof material to separate the lower wall and the upper wall, this blocking layer is the moisture-proof layer.The location of the moisture-proof layer is generally located at the first floor (+ 0.00) under 60mm ~ 70mm, and the elevation - 0.06 m ~ ~ 0.07 m.
31. What are the legs?What is kicking?What are the functions?
Answer: (1) the part of the outer wall near the outdoor floor is called the leod.The function of the leel is to prevent the erosion of rainwater from the surface water and eaves, thereby protecting the walls, ensuring the indoor drying and improving the durability of the buildings.The height of the feet is generally the height difference of indoor floor and outdoor floor.(2) the kicking is the construction of the interface between the inner wall of the outer wall and the interior wall.The effect of kicking is to prevent the cleaning of the wall when sweeping the floor.The height of kick is generally at 120mm ~ 150mm.
32.What is water free?What is the Ming ditch?What does it do?
Answer: the water is the drainage slope near the foot of le.The gutter is a gutter set at the foot of le's foot.They are designed to quickly remove rainwater from the eaves and prevent the building from sinking as the water seeps into the ground.